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.. / .-- .- ... / ... -.- -.-- / ... .- -.-- / -- -.-- / -. .- -- . / .-.. .- ... - / -... .. .-. -.. |||In May 2013, it was big news when, for the first time, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere hit 400 parts per million|||This is higher than it's been in millions of years|||The level of CO2 in the atmosphere is now increasing at a rate that is at least 100 times faster|||than it has been at any time since record-keeping began|||At some point next year or the year after|||carbon dioxide levels will rise above 400 ppm|||and will not be likely to fall below that mark again|||350 parts per million|||is the maximum allowable for maintaining ecosystems|||and the human systems that depend on them|||.. / .-- .- ... / ... -.- -.-- / ... .- -.-- / -- -.-- / -. .- -- . / .-.. .- ... - / -... .. .-. -..
.. / .-- .- ... / ... -.- -.-- / ... .- -.-- / -- -.-- / -. .- -- . / .-.. .- ... - / -... .. .-. -.. |||Oceans on brink of catastrophe|||The world's oceans are faced with an unprecedented loss of species|||comparable to the great mass extinctions of prehistory|||The seas are degenerating far faster than anyone has predicted,|||the report says, because of the cumulative impact of a number of severe individual stresses,|||ranging from climate warming and sea-water acidification,|||to widespread chemical pollution and gross overfishing|||The coming together of these factors|||is now threatening the marine environment with a catastrophe 'unprecedented in human history',|||according to the report, from a panel of leading marine scientists|||brought together in Oxford earlier this year|||by the International Programme on the State of the Ocean (IPSO)|||and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)|||The stark suggestion made by the panel is that the potential extinction of species,|||from large fish at one end of the scale to tiny corals at the other,|||is directly comparable to the five great mass extinctions in the geological record,|||during each of which much of the world's life died out|||They range from the Ordovician-Silurian 'event' of 450 million years ago,|||to the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction of 65 million years ago,|||which is believed to have wiped out the dinosaurs|||The worst of them, the event at the end of the Permian period, 251 million years ago,|||is thought to have eliminated 70 per cent of species on land|||and 96 per cent of all species in the sea|||The panel of 27 scientists, who considered the latest research from all areas of marine science,|||concluded that a "combination of stressors is creating the conditions|||associated with every previous major extinction of species in Earth's history"|||They also concluded: * The speed and rate of degeneration of the oceans is far faster than anyone has predicted||| * Many of the negative impacts identified are greater than the worst predictions||| * The first steps to globally significant extinction may have already begun|||Reviewing recent research, the panel of experts "found firm evidence" that the effects of climate change, coupled with other human-induced impacts such as overfishing and nutrient run-off from farming, have already caused a dramatic decline in ocean health||| Not only are there severe declines in many fish species,|||to the point of commercial extinction in some cases,|||and an 'unparalleled' rate of regional extinction of some habitat types,|||such as mangrove and seagrass meadows,|||but some whole marine ecosystems, such as coral reefs,|||may be gone within a generation||| The report says: Increasing hypoxia [low oxygen levels]|||and anoxia [absence of oxygen, known as ocean dead zones],|||combined with warming of the ocean and acidification,|||are the three factors which have been present in every mass extinction event in Earth's history||| 'There is strong scientific evidence that these three factors|||are combining in the ocean again, exacerbated by multiple severe stressors|||The scientific panel concluded that a new extinction event was inevitable|||if the current trajectory of damage continues.'||| .. / .-- .- ... / ... -.- -.-- / ... .- -.-- / -- -.-- / -. .- -- . / .-.. .- ... - / -... .. .-. -..
The Current Mass Extinction ::: |||Is the biosphere today on the verge|||of anything like the mass extinctions of the geological past?|||Could some equivalent of meteorite impacts be underway|||as humankind's rapid destruction of natural habitats|||forces animals and plants out of existence?|||Increasingly, researchers are doing the numbers, and saying, yes|||if present trends continue, a mass extinction is very likely underway|||The evidence is pieced together from details drawn from all over the world,|||but it adds up to a disturbing picture|||This time, unlike the past,|||it's not a chance asteroid collision,|||nor a chain of climatic circumstances alone that's at fault|||Instead,|||it is chiefly the activities of an ever-growing human population|||the past 400 years have seen 89 mammalian extinctions, almost 45 times the predicted rate, and another 169 mammal species are listed as critically endangered|||Therein lies the concern biologists have for many of today's species|||While the number of actual documented extinctions may not seem that high,|||they know that many more species are 'living dead'|||populations so critically small that they have little hope of survival|||Other species are among the living dead because of their interrelationships|||for example, the loss of a pollinator can doom the plant it pollinates,|||and a prey species can take its predator with it into extinction|||By some estimates, as much as 30 percent of the world's animals and plants could be on a path to extinction within 100 years|||These losses are likely to be unevenly distributed,|||as some geographic areas and some groups of organisms are more vulnerable to extinction than others|||Tropical rainforest species are at especially high risk,|||as are top carnivores, species with small geographic ranges, and marine reef species|||Humanity's main impact on the extinction rate is landscape modification,|||an impact greatly increased by the burgeoning human population|||Now standing at 5.7 billion and growing at a rate of 1.6 percent per year,|||the population of the world will double in 43 years if growth continues at this pace|||By draining wetlands, plowing prairies, logging forests, paving, and building,|||we are altering the landscape on an unprecedented scale|||Some organisms do well under the conditions we've created:|||They tend to cope well with change, tolerate a broad range of habitats, disperse widely, and reproduce rapidly, and they can quickly crowd out more specialized local species|||City pigeons, zebra mussels, rats, and kudzu and tamarisk trees|||these are examples of what biologists call 'weedy' species, both animals and plants|||Many weedy species will probably survive,|||and even thrive, in the face of the current mass extinction|||But thousands of others, many never known to science, are likely to perish|||And what is the fate of our own species likely to be?|||if we really are in the midst of a sixth mass extinction?|||One possibility is that as diversity and abundance wither, the species causing it all:|||Homo sapiens, the most dominant species in history|||could also be on the road to oblivion|||But another possibility is that Homo sapiens,|||which has proved to be a very effective weedy species itself,|||will persist|||That's the view of paleobiologist David Jablonski,|||who sees us as one of the survivors, 'sort of picking through the rubble'|||of a world that has lost much of its biodiversity and much of its comfort|||For along with that species richness,|||the ecosystem is likely to loose much of its ability to provide|||many of the valuable services that we take for granted,|||from cleaning and recirculating air and water,|||to pollinating crops and providing a source for new pharmaceuticals|||And while the fossil record tells us that biodiversity has always recovered,|||it also tells us that the recovery will be unbearably slow in human terms|||5 to 10 million years after the mass extinctions of the past|||That's more than 200,000 generations of humankind|||before levels of biodiversity comparable to those we inherited might be restored.
as many as 30-50% of all species are possibly heading toward extinction by mid-century
1914|||departures|||last stop|||cincinnati zoo|||martha died|||one september day|||last passenger|||last bird|||and yesterday|||clouds of birds|||tunnels of birds|||forests ablaze with birds|||then one|||then none|||swept by|||silver scythe|||empty swing|||wild|||twisted flight|||last passenger|||pigeon she|||slipped away|||forever into sky|||through iron bars|||blue ghost wings|||wing bone|||tiny xylophone|||weightless kite
it was like this every morning
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i was looking for you|||in the beginning|||black clouds|||χάος|||tsunami|||radioactive waves|||dry rivers|||chaos|||say my name|||firmaments|||recent loss of species|||will soon propel the world|||into its sixth mass extinction|||this is your captain|||this is just a test|||i was sky|||on the red list|||cyclones|||scrawled formulas|||say my name|||fevered calculations|||stochastic clouds|||this is just a test|||raging fires|||turbulence|||theramin sirens|||emergency broadcasts|||i was looking for you|||electrostatic stars|||this is just a test|||blue window|||i was a bird|||gone again|||wax wings|||lightning|||a burning sun|||i was a bird|||god of ahab|||#c@ssieL - χάος|||#c@ssieL|||say my name